1 Mai Nefhi College Of Engineering And Technology,Asmara

2 Mai Nefhi College of Engineering and Technology Asmara

3 Department of Chemical Engg, MCOET

4 Department of Chemical engg.MCOET


Climate change exacerbates water scarcity disputes by disrupting the water cycle, increasing water stress, impacting ecosystems, and necessitating adaptation strategies to ensure sustainable water management. In Eritrea, access to clean water remains crucial for local businesses. As the Eritrea’s Dairy Value-Chain is aligned with national development goals to achieve sustainable development, it is pertinent to claim currently existing dairy industries in terms of water use and wastewater generates. Thus an eight weeks’ study at Asmara Dairy, operates at an annual capacity of 3 million liters of milk intake; focused on assessment of water use and effluents discharge. The study reveals that the plant consumes 8600 of fresh water, and generates 8110 of wastes per annum. Further, the specific water use and discharged wastes are determined as 2.93 and 2.76 L/L of milk intake, which are quite higher than the reported ranges. However, the cleaning operations remained major contributors, acquiring more than 40 % of total water utilization and wastes generation as well. Albeit, Asmara Dairy utilize quite less water when compared with local industries, effluents of dairy impose high risks on environment due to their concentrated organic loadings. Moreover, adapting reduce-reuse-recycle strategies in water management through breaking mental barriers among employees and industry authorities could make significant progress towards sustainable operations.