4237-60103 EMBU



Underground water baseline studies are very instrumental in the provision of data for inventories that would play a critical role in conservation assessments and for future development project monitoring.This study was conducted in Turkana County.The main objectives of this study were to enhance the current knowledge and understanding of the water quality of the community boreholes,establish its portability, and provide baseline data that will be very useful to the water quality monitoring agencies. Water samples were collected from randomly selected boreholes in Turkana South Sub-county using fixed volume purge and sample technique and both field measurement and laboratory analysis by use of an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer were used in analysis of selected heavy metals. The sampled boreholes were Sale-yard, Nakukulus, ACS and Lokichanda boreholes. The study established that the levels of heavy metals such as Copper, Magnesium, Barium and Lead were all below the recommended levels by WHO. However, the levels of Iron and Nickel which were above the World Health Organization of 0.3mg/L and 0.2mg/L in the four community boreholes with recordings of (1.17ppm,1.5ppm,0.39ppm,0.3ppm) and (0.27ppm,0.63ppm,0.58ppm,0.37ppm) respectively. In addition, the Turbidity and TDS levels were also above the WHO-recommended levels of 5 NTU and <1000 ppm respectively. The Turbidity readings for the four boreholes were (6,6.3,5.5,4.9) NTUs respectively. The TDS levels for the four boreholes respectively were (1060,1020,1473,1025) ppm which were all above the WHO standard levels. There is a need to treat this water before consumption and perpetually monitor its quality to ensure the safety of the locals.



©2024 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


Forscher Publisher remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Forscher Publisher


Letters to Editor

WES Journal welcomes letters to the editor for the post-publication discussions and corrections which allows debate post publication on its site, through the Letters to Editor. Letters pertaining to manuscript published in WES should be sent to the editorial office of WES within three months of either online publication or before printed publication, except for critiques of original research. Following points are to be considering before sending the letters (comments) to the editor.

[1] Letters that include statements of statistics, facts, research, or theories should include appropriate references, although more than three are discouraged.
[2] Letters that are personal attacks on an author rather than thoughtful criticism of the author’s ideas will not be considered for publication.
[3] Letters can be no more than 300 words in length.
[4] Letter writers should include a statement at the beginning of the letter stating that it is being submitted either for publication or not.
[5] Anonymous letters will not be considered.
[6] Letter writers must include their city and state of residence or work.
[7] Letters will be edited for clarity and length.
Ajugwo,  a. O. (2013). Negative Effects of Gas Flaring: The Nigerian Experience. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, 1(1), 6–8.
Asche, K., & Lead, S. (2013). The Effects of Chloride from Waste Water on the Environment. University of Minnesota Morris, 32.
Bakke, T., Klungsøyr, J., & Sanni, S. (2013). Environmental effects of produced water and drilling waste discharges from the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry. Marine Environmental Research, 92, 154– 169.
David Mugendi, Caleb Mireri, Jacob Kibwage(2019).Assessment of heavy metals concentration in mud cuttings of reserve pit 7 in Twiga 1 well pad South Lokichar Basin relative to acceptable levels in drinking water.J.Bio. Env. Sci. 15(1), 87-94, 
Duda-Chodak, A., & Blaszczyk, U. (2008). The Impact of Nickel on Human Health. Journal of Elementology, 13(4), 685–696.
Earthview Geoconsultants Ltd. (2012). Environmental Impact Assessment for the Proposed 3D Seismic Survey in Oil Block 13T South Lokichar Basin By Tullow Kenya ., (December).)
Eliot A., Estella A. Atekwana, Rebecca S. Rowe, D. Dale Werkema, Franklyn D. Legall LL’(2004)The relationship of total dissolved solids measurements to bulk electrical conductivity in an aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbon, Journal of Applied Geophysics, Volume 56, Issue 4,2004,Pages 281294,ISSN 0926-9851,
Gorchev, H. G., & Ozolins, G. (2011). WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO Chronicle, 38(3), 104–108.
Grazuleviciene, R., Nadisauskiene, R., Buinauskiene, J., & Grazulevicius, T. (2009). Effects of Elevated Levels of Manganese and Iron in Drinking Water on Birth Outcomes. Polish J. of Environ. Stud., 18(5), 819–825.
Gupta,D.Tiwari,K.S.Razafindrabe,B.and Chatterjee,S.(2017) Arsenic contamination from historical aspects to the present, in Arsenic Contamination in the Environment. Berlin, Germany.Springer, 1–12.
Jimoh, W.O. & Umar, M.I. (2015). Determination of trace metal concentration in drinking water samples from Sani Mainagge Quarter, Gwale local government area, Kano state, Nigeria.International Journal of Science Research in Environmental Sciences,3(9):0341-0349.
Joseph,C.L.Havstad,M.S.Own by, D. R.Peterson, E.L.Maliarik,M.McCabe,M.J.etal.(2005).Blood lead level and risk of asthma.Environmental Health Perspectives, 113 (7):900–904.
Kadafa, B., & Ayuba, A.(2012.). Environmental Effects of Oil and gas exploration and production  in the
Niger Delta of Nigeria.Global Journal of Science Frontier Research
Kim, H. S. Kim, Y. J. and Seo, Y. R. (2015). An overview of carcinogenic heavy metal: molecular toxicity mechanism and prevention.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention,20(4):232.
Knez, D., Gonet, A., Fija, J., & Czekaj, L. (2006). Trends in the Drilling Waste Management ., 11, 80–83.
Li, R.Wu,H. Ding,J.Fu, W.Gan, L.and Li, Y.(2017). Mercury pollution in vegetables, grains and soils from areas surrounding coal-fired power plants.Scitific Reports,7:46545.
Mahurpawar, M.(2015). Effects of heavy metals on human health. International Journal of ReseacrhGranthaalayah, 2350(0530), 2394–3629
Mbithe, M.(2016).Determination of selected Physico-chemical Parameters and heavy metals in Ngamia5 Oil exploratory Well Reserve pit in Turkana County,Kenya Department of Chemistry,University of Nairobi.e-repository.
Ogwuegbu, MOC.Muhanga,W.(2005). Investigation of Lead Concentration in the Blood of People in the Copper belt Province of Zambia, J. Journal of Environmental Management, (1): 66 – 75.
OXFAM. (2015). Market-driven value chain for the livestock sector Turkana County report. Nairobi: OXFAM.
Ragon, T., Nutz, A., Schuster, M., Ghienne, J.F., Ruffet, G. and Rubino, J.L. (2019) Evolution of the Northern Turkana Depression (East African Rift System, Kenya)during the Cenozoic Rifting: New Insights from the Ekitale Basin (28-25.5 Ma).Geological Journal, 54, 3468-3488.
Ratemo, C.M., Ogendi, G.M., Huang, G. and Ondieki, R.N. (2020) Application of Traditional Ecological
Knowledge in Food and Water Security in the Semi-AridTurkana County, Kenya. Open Journal of Ecology, 10, 321-340.
Schilling, J., Locham, R., Weinzierl, T., Vivekananda, J., & Scheffran, J. (2015). The nexus of oil, conflict, and climate change vulnerability of pastoral communities in northwest Kenya. Earth System Dynamics, 6(2), 703–717.
WHO,(2017). Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality: Fourth Edition Incorporating the First Addendum. World Health Organization, Geneva.
WHO. (1997). Water sampling and analysis. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, Jan/Feb 19, 51–72.
Wu,X.Cobbina,S.J.Mao,G.Xu,H.Zhang,Z.and Yang, L.(2016).A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment. Environmental science and pollution research international,23 (9):8244–8259015).