Document Type : Short Communication


Ministry of Water Resources, Irrigation and Electricity, Khartoum, Sudan



Freshwater is discovered in thirty percent of the ground which lands located by several water sources and humans living there along by eighty percent of bio-diversity. The human population is growing and requiring freshwater. Now humans are relevant eighty percent of freshwater to underground water for farming and daily activities in urban areas. By considering the heavy utilization of underground water, the surface water sources are influenced, especially in the summer. Patna is the capital of Bihar state (India), and the urban zone is developing so quickly now loaded by about 2 million people restricted with Sone, Punpun, and Ganga by Gandak rivers. The ground is plain and there are a dozen ponds for recharging the underground water. In May, the Punpun River includes little water, Sone and Ganga contain lower than ten percent of water in October. People are utilizing underground water by mainly utilizing tube well of >200 feet depth that is go down thirty to fifty feet deeper every year according to slightly restore velocity. It is according to minimum rainwater production. Most of the rainwater runoff is in the Ganga River. Patna requires twelve billion liters of water for billions of rupees in  May, and the temperature increases 5 to 7 Degree Celsius higher than the temperature of April generating an alarming condition in the community, especially for fishes, amphibians, birds, and even mammals. The condition becomes so difficult while air contamination, fluoride, and arsenic toxic generate death to organisms cause extinction. for meeting this threatening condition, each rainwater drop must be gathered by the pond's network. At least > ten percent of the land is needed for ponds for meeting the need for water of the increasing human and other organisms for saving green earth.


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