1 University of Prishtina, 10000 Prishtinë, Republic of Kosovo

2 Academy of Arts and Sciences of Kosova, 10000 Prishtina, Republic of Kosova



Wheat bran without any chemical treatment was used as biosorbent for sorption of cadmium ions from aqueous solution. The structure of biosorbent was characterized by ATR-IR spectra and pH of the point zero charge (pHPZC). The effect of initial metal concentration, biosorbent dose, contact time, temperature, initial solution, pH, on biosorption of Cd(II) ion from aqueous solution into wheat bran were determined. The best results were achieved at contact time 30 min at pH 5.5 and temperature 25oC. We used Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms to characterize the adsorption equilibrium. The biosorption of cadmium ions fits well with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, according to experimental data (R2 0.996 and R2 0.995, respectively). The maximum biosorption capacity of cadmium ions with the Langmuir model for wheat bran is qmax= 6.25 mg/g, at optimal conditions. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔHo, ΔSo and ΔGo) showed that the exothermic, spontaneous and favourable biosorption process. These results predict that wheat bran can be used for uptake of cadmium ions from aqueous solution.


ANEYO, I. A., DOHARTY, F. V., ADEBESIN, O. A., HAMMED, M. O. 2016. Biodegradation of Pollutants in Wastewater from Pharmaceutical, Textile and Local Dye Effluent in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal Health and Pollution, 6, 33–42.
ASIF, M. K., UMAR, F., MUHAMMAD, M. A., MUHAMMAD S. 2019. Biosorption of Cd(II) Ions from Its Aqueous Solutions Using Powdered Branches of Trifolium Resupinatum: Equilibrium and Kinetics. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews, 12, 217–224.
AYAWEI, N., EKUBO, A. T., WANKASI, D., DIKIO, E. D. 2015. Adsorption of Congo red by Ni/Al-CO3: Equilibrium, Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 31, 1307–1318. 
AZZA, M., ABDEL, A., NABILA, S. A., HANY, H., ABDEL G., ALI, R. K. 2013. Biosorption of Cadmium and Lead from Aqueous Solution by Fresh Water Alga Anabaena Sphaerica Biomass. Journal Advanced Research, 4, 367–374.
CIMINO, G., PASSERINI, A., TOSCANO, G. 2000. Removal of Toxic Cations and Cr (VI) From Aqueous Solution by Hazelnut Shell. Water Research 34, 2955–2962.
CRINI, G., PEINDY, H.N., GIMBERT, F., ROBERT, C. 2007. Removal of C.I. Basic Green 4 (Malachite Green) from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Using Cyclodextrin Based Adsorbent: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies. Separation and Purification Technology, 53, 97–110.
DACI-AJVAZI, M., THAÇI, B., DACI, N., GASHI, S. 2018. Evaluation of Packed Adsorption Column for Lead, Cadmium and Zinc Removal Using Different Biosorbents.  Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 19, 997–1007.
DIANA, Ch. G., NOEMI, O. L., ANA M. F. M., JORGE, Ch. S. 2020. Adsorption Behavior of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) onto Agave Bagasse, Characterization, and Mechanism. ACS Omega, 5, 3302−3314.
Ergüvenerler, F., Targan, Ş., Tirtom, V. N. 2020. Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solutions by Low Cost and Waste Biosorbents (Lemon, Bean and Artichoke Shells). Water Science and Technology, 81, 159-169.
Fasih, U.H., Cai L., JEFFREY, A. C., SARDAR A. Ch., JUN W., RENZHI, Zh., MA W., MUHAMMED FAROOQ. 2021. Cadmium Toxicity in Plants: Impacts and Remediation Strategies. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 211, 1-22.
GEOFREY, K., KINUTHIA, V. N., DUNSTONE, B., REUBENe, L., AGNE, W., LUNA, K. 2020. Levels of Heavy Metals in Wastewater and Soil Samples from Open Drainage Channels in Nairobi, Kenya: Community Health Implication. Scientific Reports, 10, 8434.
GUPTA, V.K., JAIN, C. K., ALI, I., SHARMA, SAINI, V. K. 2003. Removal of Cadmium and Nickel from Wastewater Using Bagasse Fly Ash-a Sugar Industry Waste. Water Research, 37, 4038–4044.
HASAN, M.K., AHAMMED, G.J., SUN, S., LI, M., YIN, H., ZHOU, J. 2019. Melatonin Inhibits Cadmium Translocation and Enhances Plant Tolerance by Regulating Sulfur Uptake and Assimilation in Solanum Lycopersicum L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67, 10563–10576.
HO, Y.-S., OFOMAJA, A. E. 2006. Biosorption Thermodynamics of Cadmium on Coconut Copra Meal as Biosorbent. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 30, 117–123.
HUAIN, B., ASHRAF, M.N., RAHMAN, S.-U., ABBAS, A., LIA, J., FAROOQ, M. 2021 Cadmium Stress in Paddy Fields: Effects of Soil Conditions and Remediation Strategies.  Science of the Total Environment, 754, 142188.
HUFF, J., LUNN, R. M., WAALKES, M. P., TOMATIS, L., INFANTE, P. F. 2007. Cadmium-Induced Cancers in Animals and in Humans. International Journal of Occupation and Environmental Health, 13, 202–212.
IBRAHIM, Z. H., FARURUW, M. D. 2020. Biosorption Studies of Cd2+ and Cr6+ from Aqueous Solution Using Cola-Nut Leaves as Low-Cost Biosorbent. Journal of Chemistry, 2020, 1-10.
JIAO, Y., HAN, D., LU, Y., RONG, Y., FANG, L., LIU, Y. 2017. Characterization of Pine-Sawdust Pyrolytic Char activated by Phosphoric Acid through Microwave Irradiation and Adsorption property Toward CDNB. Desalination and Water Treatment, 77, 247-255.
KAHLON, S. K., SHARMA, G., JULKA, J.M., KUMAR, A., SHARMA, S., STADLER, F.J. 2018. Impact of Heavy Metals and Nanoparticles on Aquatic Biota. Environmental Chemistry Letter, 16, 919–946.
KALANDER, A. and YADAV, R H. 2014. Removal of Toxic Cadmium form Aqueous Solution Using Natural Adsorbents: An Eco-Friendly Method. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 8, 85-91.
KAPOOR, A., VIRARAGHAVAN, T., CULLIMORE, D.R. 1999. Removal of Heavy Metals Using the Fungus Aspergillus Niger. Bioresource Technology, 70, 95–104.
KARASKAL A and TALIB N. 2022. Cadmium Ions Removal Analysis from Wastewater utilizing Salvadora persica Stem's Activated Carbon. Water and Environmental Sustainability, 2, 1-5.
KARIMPOUR, M., ASHRAF, S.D., TAGHAVI, K., MOJTAHEDI, A., ROOHBAKHSH, E., NAGHIPOUR, D. (2018): Adsorption of Cadmium and Lead onto Live and Dead Cell Mass of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: A Dataset. Data in Brief, 18, 1185–1192.
KUBIER, A., WILKIN, R.T., PICHLER, T. 2019. Cadmium in Soils and Groundwater: A Review. Applied Geochemistry, 108, 1-16.
LEE, T. ZH. E., ZHANG, J., FENG, Y., LIN, X., ZHOU, J. 2021. Adsorption of Cd(II) Ions by Coconut Copra: Isotherm and Regeneration Studies. Earth and Environment Science, 657, 1–13.
LI, SH., RAN, CH., JUNJUN, W., LING F., LINLIN, C., YEJUAN, Z., JINJU, CH., XUELING, W., JIAOKUN L., WEIMIN. Z. 2021. Biosorption Behavior and Mechanism of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. RSC Advanced, 11, 18637–18650.
MAHAJAN, P., KAUSHAL, J. 2018. Role of Phytoremediation in Reducing Cadmium Toxicity in Soil and Water. Journal of Toxicology, 2018, 1–16.
MANOJ, K., DEBENDRA, R., RAJENDRA, K., AJAYA, B. 2020. Determination of Point Zero Charge (PZC) of Homemade Charcoals of Shorea Robusta (Sakhuwa) and Pinus Roxburghii (Salla). International Journal Engineering Research and Technology, 9, 152-155.
MARTIN, S., GRISWOLD, W. 2009. Human Health Effects of Heavy Metals. Environmental Science and Technology 15, 1–6.
MONDAL, S.C., SARMA, B., FAROOQ, M., NATH, D. J., GOGOI, N. 2020. Cadmium Bioavailability in Acidic Soils under Bean Cultivation: Role of Soil Additives. Journal Environmental Science and Technology, 17, 153–160.
OMOROGIE, M.O., BABALOLA, J.O., UNUABONAH, E. I., GONG, J. R. 2012. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Heavy Metal Ions Sequestration onto Novel Nauclea Diderrichii Seed Biomass. Bioresource Technology, 118, 576–579.
QIAN, W., YUNLONG, W., ZI Y., WENQING, H., LIZHU, Y., LI, ZH., XIAOWU, H. (2022): Efficient Removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from Aqueous Solutions by Mango Seed Biosorbent. Chemical Engineering Journal Advance, 11, 1–10.
RAMIN, M., HAMID M., EHSAN, A., RAMEZAN A. T. 2018. Adsorption of Cadmium from Aqueous Solutions by Novel Fe3O4- Newly Isolated Actinomucor sp. Bionanoadsorbent: Functional Group Study. Artificial Cells Nanomedicine and Biotechnology, 46, 1092-1101.
RASHID, I., MURTAZA, G., ZAHIR, Z. A., FAROOQ, M. 2018. Effect of Humic and Fulvic Acid Transformation on Cadmium Availability to Wheat Cultivars in Sewage Sludge Amended Soil. Environmental Science and Pollutions Research International, 25, 16071–10679.
RENU., AGARWAL, M., SINGH K. 2017. Heavy Metal Removal from Wastewater Using Various Adsorbents: A review. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination, 7, 387–419.
SALIH, I., MUNA, H., QAIS, I., KHALID, A. 2020. Genotoxic Effect of Lead and Cadmium on Workers at Wastewater Plant in Iraq. ­Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2020, 1­–9.
SARADA, B., PRASAD, M. K., KUMAR, K. K., MURTHY, CH V. R. 2017. Biosorption of Cd2+ by Green Plant Biomass, Araucaria Heterophylla: Characterization, Kinetic, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Studies. Applied Water Science, 7. 3483–3496.
SINGH, C. K., SAHU, N. J., MAHALIK, K. K., MOHANTY, C. R., MOHAN, B. R., MEIKAP B. C. 2008. Studies on the Removal of Pb(II) from Wastewater by Activated Carbon Developed from Tamarind Wood Activated with Sulphuric Acid. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 153, 221–228.
THAÇI, B. S., GASHI S. T. 2019. Reverse Osmosis Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater Effluents Using Biowaste Materials Pretreatment. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 28, 337–341.
THAÇI, B., GASHI, S., DACI, N., DACI-AJVAZI, M. 2021. Hybrid Processes Evaluation of Pb(II) Removal from Wastewater Effluents. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 30, 3261–3267.
WANG, F.Y., WANG, H., MA J.W. 2010. Adsorption of Cadmium (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by a New Low-Cost Adsorbent-Bamboo Charcoal. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 177, 300–306.
YAN, G., VIRARAGHAVAN, T. 2003. Heavy-Metal Removal from Aqueous Solution by Fungus Mucor Rouxii. Water Research, 37, 4486–4496.
ZULFIQAR, U., FAROOQ, M., HUSSAIN, S., MAQSOOD, M., HUSSAIN, M., ISHFAQ, M., AHMAD, M., ANJUM, M. Z. 2019. Lead Toxicity in Plants: Impacts and Remediation. Journal of Environmental Management, 250, 1-21.