Sewage Sludge and Municipal Solid Garbage Composting

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Agriculture and plant breeding, Tehran, Iran



Co-compost could be gained by a mix of municipal solid garbage and sludge, that has been utilized in the agrarian grounds and solving municipal garbage and wastewater treatment plant issues. This investigation wants to present a method to set optimal situations like aeration speed, temperature, moisture range, C/N proportion, and particle size in composting procedure. Two pilots have been presented and in each pilot, various mixtures of municipal garbage, sludge, and wood pulp have been utilized. The size of the particle in mix and aeration speed were the distinctions between the 2 pilots. The outcomes demonstrated that the compost pile's pH has been almost ten in the start of the procedure and reduced to 7.25 slowly after seven days. The proper particle size has been 10 to 40 mm. The appropriate C/N proportion has been in the range of 25 and 35. It has been almost 33 in this experimentation. High temperatures lead to improving microbial movement in the start of the procedure. For homogenizing the temperature, it is essential for making an irritation of the compost pile each 4-6 days. An increase in co-compost temperature occurred while the moisture range has been from 50 to 60 percent. Aeration by 3 times of needed air has provided the best outcome. Ultimately, we have discovered that the moisture rate has more impact on microbial movement in comparison with the temperature. These outcomes support the utilization of the co-composting procedure by making up the size of particle and moisture abilities in preference to forced aeration-enclosed reactors.


Abdolkarim Keshavarz, Naser Mohammadian Roshan, Maral Moraditochaee, Ebrahim Azarpour and Ahmad Shirin Fekr 2012. Study effects of biological, manure and chemicals nitrogen fertilizer application under irrigation management in lentil farming on physiocochemical properties of soil. J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 2 (7). 6483-6487.
Ahn, H., Richard, T. and Glanville, T. 2007. Laboratory determination of compost physical parameters for modeling of airflow characteristics. Waste Manage., 32: 142-147.
Alten, A. and Edrin, E. 2005. Co-composting Solid Waste and Sludge of City Izmir. Die Festwoche der Abfallwirtschaft und Alt Lasten
der TU Dresden, pp. 26-30.
APHA 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st ed., American Public Health Association/ American Water Works Association/Water Pollution Control
Federation, Washington DC., USA.
Asadi Ardali Hamed, Nazari Aslan and Nazari Hamed 2012. A survey of dry sludge from the activated sludge wastewater treatment plants in Iranian cold regions (A case study in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari Province). J. Basic Appl. Sci. Res., 2(11): 10869-10875.
ASAE 2006. Terminology and Definitions for Biomass Production, Harvesting and Collection, Storage Processing Conversion and Utilization Engineering Institute.
Chai, E., Hng, P., Peng, S., Wan-Azha, W., Chin, K., Chow, M. and Wong, W. 2013. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia, Environmental Technology.
Cronje, A., Turner, C., Williams, A., Barker, A. and Guy, S. 2003. Composting under controlled conditions. Environmental Technology, 24(10): 1221-1234.
Doublet, J. B., Francou, C., Poitrenaud, M., Houot, S. 2011. Influence of bulking agents on organic matter evolution during sewage sludge composting; consequences on compost organic matter stability and N availability, Bioresource Technol., 102 (2): 1298-1307.
Doublet, J., Francou, B., Poitrenaud, M., Houot, S. 2010. Sewage sludge composting: Influence of initial mixtures on organic matter evolution and N availability in the final composts, Waste Manage., 30 (10): 1922-1930.
Eghball, B., Barbarick, K. 2007. Manure, Compost, and Biosolids, Encyclopedia of Soil Science, Second Edition. Ellina, S. Pandebesie, Dety Rayuanti, 2013. Rice Husk and Microorganisms Addition Increased Domestic Solid Waste Composting Process, J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 3(2): 13-17.
Evans, G., Furlong, J. 2010. Environmental Biotechnology: Theory and Application, Second Edition, 2010, Wiley publications.
Gabhane, J., William, S., Bidyadhar, R., Bhilawe, P., Anand, D., Vaidya, N., Wat, R. 2012. Additives aided composting of green waste: Effects on organic matter degradation, compost maturity, and quality of the finished compost, Bioresource Technol., 114: 382-388.
Gigliotti, G., Proietti, P., Pullicino, D., Nasini, L., Pezzolla, D., Rosati, L., Porceddu, P. 2012. Co-composting of olive husks with high moisture contents: Organic matter dynamics and compost quality, Int. Biodeter. Biodegr., 67: 8-14.
Guerra-Rodríguez, E., Vázquez, M., Diaz-Raviña, M. 2001. Dynamics of physicochemical and biological parameters during the cocomposting of chestnut burr/leaf litter with solid poultry manure, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81, 7, 648-652.
Huang, G.F., Wong, C., Wu, T., Nager, B. 2004. Effect of C/N on Composting of Pig Manure with Sawdust, Waste Manage. 24: 805-813.
Karak, T., Bhattacharyya, P., Paul, R., Das, T., Saha, S. 2013. Evaluation of Composts from Agricultural Wastes with Fish Pond Sediment as Bulking Agent to Improve Compost Quality, CLEANSoil, Air, Water, 41, 7, 711-723.
Kayikcioglu, H. 2013. Effects of Composts from Agroindustrial Wastes on Microbial Activity of a Typic Xerofluvent Soil Under Mediterranean Conditions, SE Turkey, Geomicrobiology Journal, 30, 3, 228-236.
Kulikowska, D., Klimiuk, E. 2010. Co-composting of sewage sludge with lignocellulosic amendments assessment of compost quality, J. Biotechnol., 150, 282-283.
Liang, C., Das, K., Clendon, R. 2003. The influence of temperature and moisture contents regimes on the aerobic microbial activity of a biosolids composting blend. Bioresource Techno., 86:13,1- 7.
Mena, E., Garrido, A., Hernández, T., García, C. 2003. Bioremediation of Sewage Sludge by Composting, Commun. Soil Sci. Plan., 34 (7-8): 957-971.
Ogunwande, G., Osunade, A., Adekalu, K., Ogunjimi, L. 2008. Nitrogen loss in chicken litter compost as affected by carbon to nitrogen ratio and turning frequency. Bioresource Technol., 99: 7495-503.
Oudart, D., Paul, E., Robin, P., Paillat, J. 2012. Modeling organic matter stabilization during windrow composting of livestock effluents, Environmental Technology, 33, 9, 2235-2243.
Raj, Dev and Antil, R.S. 2011. Evaluation of maturity and stability parameters of composts prepared from agro-industrial wastes. Bioresource Technol., 102(3): 2868-2873.
Raj, D. and Antil, R.S. 2012. Evaluation of maturity and stability parameters of composts prepared from farm wastes, Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 58, 8, 817-832.
Antil, R.S. and Raj, Dev 2012. Chemical and microbiological parameters for the characterization of maturity of composts made from farm and agro-industrial wastes. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 58(8): 833-845.
Srinivasan, T. and Vijayalakshmi, G. S. 2011. Biomanagement of banana leaf waste through microbial technology. J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci., 1(7): 126-128.
Tang, J., Inoue, Y., Yasuta, T., Yoshida, S. and Katayama, A. 2003. Chemical and microbial properties of various compost products. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 49(2): 273-280.
Tchobanoglous, G., Nemerow, N., Agardy, F., Sullivan, P. and Salvato, J. 2009. Environmental Engineering: Environmental Health and Safety for Municipal Infrastructure, Land Use and Planning and Industry. Sixth Edition, Wiley Publications. Yousefi, J., Younesi, H. and Ghasempoury, M. 2013. Co-composting of municipal solid waste with sawdust: Improving compost quality, CLEAN-Soil, Air, Water, 41(2): 185-194.
Zorpas, A., Evagelos Kapetanios, Giovanis A. Zorpas, Panagiotis Karlis, Apostolos Vlyssides, Ioanna Haralambous and Maria Loizidou 2000. Compost produced from organic fraction of municipal solid waste, primary stabilized sewage sludge and natural zeolite. J. Hazard. Mater., 77 (1-3): 149-159.