Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Uyo, Nigeria



Because pesticides are ubiquitous and focused on the food chain, they are a substantial source of possible environmental danger to humans and animals. The highest extremely hazardous herbicides to be launched in 60 years ago is paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium dichloride). Although most nations have prohibited or severely limited the use of paraquat (PQ), it is still used in others, particularly in Nigeria. As a result, the present study used a spectrophotometric method to look for PQ in some vegetables, crops, and fruits in Abeokuta that are commonly consumed. The presence and amounts of PQ residues were assessed in 150 samples of various vegetables, crops, and fruits (harvested at Fadama field of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta). PQ residues were detected in Talinum triangulare, Corchorus olitorius, Amaranthus caudatus, Cratylia argentea, Capsicum frutescens, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus, Zea may, and Dioscorea alata at 0.130.02, 0.27+0.02, 0.06+0.01, 0.10+0.03, 0.15+0.03, 0. Using this technique, no paraquat residues were found in M. paradisicica or C. papaya. At 0.05-1.0 ppm fortification level, the technique yields a mean recovery of over 80% and is reproducible with a total coefficient of variation of 8.0 percent (n=10).  All residual levels found were under the PQ tolerance or pesticide maximum limits.


Agrochemicals, Z. (1993). "The determination of paraquat in crops-A spectrophotometric method." ICI Plant Protection Division, Berkshire, England: 2.
Ahmed, M. T. and S. M. Ismail (1995). "Residues of methomyl in strawberries, tomatoes and cucumbers." Pesticide science 44(2): 197-199.
Andersen, J. H. and M. E. Poulsen (2001). "Results from the monitoring of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables on the Danish market, 1998? 99." Food Additives & Contaminants 18(10): 906-931.
Antonio, B. and J. Manuela (1995). "Occurrence of organochlorine agrochemicals residues in Spanish cheese." Pestic. Chem 44: 177-182.
Camoni IV, I., R. Fabbrini, L. Attias, A. D. Muccio, E. Cecere, A. Consolino and F. Roberti (2001). "Estimation of dietary intake of pesticide residues by the Italian population during 1997." Food Additives & Contaminants 18(10): 932-936.
Constenla, M. A., D. Riley, S. H. Kennedy, C. E. Rojas, L. E. Mora and J. E. Stevens (1990). "Paraquat behavior in Costa Rican soils and residues in coffee." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 38(10): 1985-1988.
Epa, U. (1993). Re-registration eligibility decision (RED): glyphosate, EPA 738-R-93-014. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide ….
Grandjean, P. and P. J. Landrigan (2006). "Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals." The Lancet 368(9553): 2167-2178.
Kinyamu, J., L. Kanja, J. Skaare and T. Maitho (1998). "Levels of organochlorine pesticides residues in milk of urban mothers in Kenya." Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 60(5): 732-738.
Osfor, M., A. A. El Wahab and S. El Dessouki (1998). "Occurence of pesticides in fish tissues, water and soil sediment from Manzala Lake and River Nile." Food/Nahrung 42(01): 39-41.
Rai, M., J. V. Das and V. Gupta (1997). "A sensitive determination of paraquat by spectrophotometry." Talanta 45(2): 343-348.
Rusibamayila, C., J. Ak'Habuhaya and M. Lodenius (1998). "Determination of pesticide residues in some major food crops of Northern Tanzania." Journal of Environmental Science & Health Part B 33(4): 399-409.
Selisker, M. Y., D. P. Herzog, R. D. Erber, J. R. Fleeker and J. Itak (1995). "Determination of paraquat in fruits and vegetables by a magnetic particle based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43(2): 544-547.
Van Emon, J., J. Seiber and B. Hammock (1987). "Application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine paraquat residues in milk, beef, and potatoes." Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39(3): 490-497.
Wigfield, Y. Y., K. A. McCormack and R. Grant (1993). "Simultaneous determination of residues of paraquat and diquat in potatoes using high-performance capillary electrophoresis with a ultraviolet detection." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 41(12): 2315-2318.